Tuesday, June 9, 2020
Aristotle devotes the first six books of his Nicomachean Ethics to a discussion of virtue. In doing so he divides virtue into two different categories: moral virtue and intellectual virtue and discusses them individually. However, in our approach to the question of the highest moral virtue, we will examine moral and intellectual virtue together (rather than separately) for the purpose of not only discerning what Aristotle deems this virtue to be, but also examine whether or not there is a connection between the two different types of virtue. Although Aristotle believes moral virtues to be of extreme importance, we will find that even the highest of the moral virtues would be unable to exist if it were not for the intellectual virtues.According to Aristotle, intellectual virtues are developed by teaching and instruction while moral virtues are developed by practice or force of habit. Moral virtues are not naturally instilled in us; the soul is designed to receive moral virtues, bu t in order to develop into guiding forces they must be nurtured by habit. The soul acquires moral virtue by exercising it, just as the harpist learns to play the harp by playing it and men become builders by building homes (1103a14-1103b2). A morally virtuous character is not brought about by thought, but rather, through action.The next thing Aristotle believes we must understand about virtue is the concept of moderation. He first notes that the nature of moral qualities is destroyed by both defect and excess (1104a12-13). As examples of this, Aristotle notes that both too much and too little food and drink will destroy our health, while the proportionate amount increases and preserves it. Applying these doctrines to virtue, Aristotle finds that the man who shuns everything becomes a coward while the man who knows no fear becomes reckless. In all things, virtue represents a middle ground between too much and too little (1104a15-27).Aristotle ends Book Two with a warning about r eferring to the virtuous mean as being the opposite of one of the extremes rather than the middle ground between them. If we were to take a few examples from Book Three, we may be inclined to say that courage is the opposite of cowardice and that temperance is the opposite of licentiousness. This, according to Aristotle, is an incorrect assertion, as can be demonstrated from the diagram below:Recklessness - Courage - CowardiceIn drawing a ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"lineÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? diagram such as the one we see above, it is actually recklessness, rather than courage that is the opposite of cowardice. Courage, rather, is the ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"meanÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? or the virtue between the two vices. Although we may be inclined to make statements to the contrary, virtue in all things is that which seeks the mean.The next thing we must understand about virtue comes from Book Three, which deals with what Aristotle calls voluntary and involuntary actions. All mor ally virtuous conduct is rooted in voluntary action. Aristotle writes that an involuntary action is one that is performed under constraint or through ignorance, while a voluntary action, is one in which the initiative lies with the agent who knows the particular circumstances in which the action is performed (1111a21-4). An act is completely involuntary only when its sole cause is not the person performing it, but an external force or person (for example, a person pushes you from behind into another person) (1110a1-5). Other forms of involuntary action are acts performed through ignorance (when the person is ignorant of the particular situation) or in ignorance (when an action is performed due to drunkenness or immorality) (1110b15-35).Voluntary action, on the other hand, implies choice. Aristotle carefully distinguishes choice from opinion and argues that true choice implies that the person choosing can determine that one action is preferable to another (1112a2-15). Therefore, the concept of choice also implies deliberation when we are put into a situation where the most preferable action is unclear. According to Aristotle we never deliberate about ends, but rather, we take the ends for granted and deliberate about how to achieve the best ends (1112b32-35). Because the object of deliberation and the object of choice are the same for Aristotle (1113a3), and because we can only deliberate between options that are within our power (1112a32), a choice must be considered review of things that lie in our power (1113a10-14).In choosing, those of good character will always aim for the good. However, those who are not of good character may understand things incorrectly, and may only wish for what they believe to be good. Both good and vice, therefore, lie within human power, and it is very possible for people to voluntarily choose vice. If we were to deny this, we would also have to deny that man is the source of his own actions (1113b8-21). Aristotle supports this explanation through an examination of how lawgivers reward those who act nobly and punish those who do evil (except evil that is done under some constraint or due to ignorance that exists through no fault of their own). Just as people are responsible for their own bad actions, they are also responsible for their moral states. If someone falls into a bad moral condition, it is his own fault for leading a bad life (1113b21-9).Knowing AristotleÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s requirements for obtaining moral virtue are extremely important because they have a direct bearing on the relationship between moral and intellectual virtue. The relationship between moral and intellectual virtue is discussed at length in Book Six. He begins Book Six by returning to his fundamental premise that virtue is distinguished from vice by voluntary action that involves some level of reasoning. Reasoning occurs through deliberation and choice as described above.There are five intellectual virtues ac cording to Aristotle: science, art, practical wisdom , intellect, and theoretical wisdom. Of these five virtues, he gives the most attention to practical wisdom. He argues that practical wisdom is the intellectual virtue of the same part of the soul that forms opinions and that unlike art (which is concerned with production and results in an object distinct from the process of making it) practical wisdom concerns the realm of action where ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"doing goodÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? is in itself an end. Therefore, practical wisdom is an intellectual virtue that enables one to grasp the truth about human action.The mark of a prudent person is that they deliberate well ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ not just about what is good and advantageous in a particular situation, but also, about what is conductive to the good life in general (1140a25-28). He who deliberates well, according to Aristotle, deliberates correctly, and this correctness is restricts deliberation to activities that enable one to arrive at a good (1142b8-22). Earlier, we found that Aristotle established this kind of ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"correctÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? deliberation as a pre-requisite to arriving at moral virtue, so it logically follows that for a person to be truly good they must be able to deliberate well, and thus, have practical wisdom.However, a problem would necessarily arise if a wicked man were to use practical wisdom and the power to deliberate to arrive at something evil. Aristotle responds to this objection by citing a difference between practical wisdom and what he refers to as ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"knavishnessÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬?. Both practical wisdom and knavishness are the power to perform those steps that are conductive to a goal we have set for ourselves. The crucial difference is that practical wisdom involves some vision of good as it appears to the virtuous person whereas knavishness does not necessarily result in a good end (1144a29-37).Based on Ar istotleÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s definition as to what would be required to arrive at moral virtue, it would appear as if one would not be able to arrive at moral virtue if one did not first possess the intellectual virtue of practical wisdom. Moral virtue is learned through the voluntary performance of morally virtuous activities, and for an action to be voluntary, it necessarily involves deliberation. However, AristotleÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s arguments on practical wisdom appear to suggest that the imprudent man would be incapable of such deliberation, because deliberative excellence is the mark of practical wisdom. Therefore, one would need to be taught the intellectual virtue of practical wisdom before one could practice any of the moral virtues. On the other hand, the only difference between ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"practical wisdomÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? and ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"knavishnessÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? is the goal each seeks to attain. Practical wisdo m involves deliberation towards goals that are said to be ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"goodÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? while knavishness is deliberation towards goals that are deemed to be ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"badÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬?. However, it would seem that for a person would need some amount of moral virtue to distinguish between which goal is ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"goodÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? and ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"badÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬?. This forces us to conclude that practical wisdom requires moral virtue and we are left with a circular argument.Aristotle responds to this objection by showing that just as practical wisdom and knavishness are similar, that there is a similarity in what he calls ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"natural virtueÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? and ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"virtue in the full senseÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (1144b3-4). He notes that from the time of our birth we all tend to possess some level of virtue, however, we tend to seek something in additi on to what we are born with. The virtue we seek is what he calls ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"virtue in the full senseÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬?, and argues that it is not possible to attain this virtue without practical wisdom. Aristotle asserts that if we were to attempt to attain moral virtue without practical wisdom, the action would be similar to ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"a mighty body that, moving without vision, comes to a mighty fallÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (1144b10-20).Aristotle concludes Book Six by arguing that virtue in the full sense cannot be obtained without practical wisdom, and he argues that this definition has led some people to believe that all virtues are forms of practical wisdom. Most important in this re-examination of practical wisdom and moral virtue is his assertion that virtue is a characteristic guided by ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"right reasonÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬?, which is determined by practical wisdom (1144b16-24). However, Aristotle finds it necessary to go be yond this simple redefinition, and goes on to argue that right reason in moral matters is practical wisdom. Therefore, right reason is what makes us virtuous and we can logically conclude that once we possess the single intellectual virtue of practical wisdom, we will possess all of the moral virtues (1145a2-4).Now that we have a solid understanding of virtue, we are able to return to the question of moral virtue. Aristotle spends part of Book Three and all of Book Four describing the different moral virtues through application of his concept of the mean. However, none of these virtues receive the same amoun of attention as the virtue of justice, which is discussed throughout the entire text of Book Five. It is not surprising that he gives this amount of space to his discussion of justice, because for Aristotle, justice is the highest of the moral virtues.For Aristotle, there are two different kinds of justice: universal justice and particular justice. For our purposes, Arist otleÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s definition of universal justice is, by far, the most important. Aristotle looks at the definition of its opposite, or what it means to be unjust. His begins this discussion with an examination of the unjust man. He writes ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"we regard as unjust both a lawbreaker and also a man who takes more than his share, so that obviously a law-abiding and a fair man will be just. Consequently, ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"justÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? is what is lawful and fair, and unjust is what is unlawful and unfairÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (1129a32-1129b1). Aristotle also notes in defining the unjust man that ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"unfairnessÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? does not necessarily have to do with those things that are larger in size. For example, when presented with a choice of bad things the unjust man will take the smallest share. Therefore, unfairness includes both taking more than ones share of those things deemed to be ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ãâ Ãâ¬ÃâÃÅ"goodÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? and less than ones share of those things deemed to be ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"badÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (1129b7-10).Universal justice then, for Aristotle, is manifest in obedience to law. With regard to these laws, Aristotle makes two assertions. The first assertion is that they aim at producing or preserving happiness or ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"the common interest either of all or of the best or of those who hold powerÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? (129b14-19). The second assertion is that they prescribe conduct in accordance with the virtues and forbid conduct that is vicious. Therefore, men living in a political order are compelled to be virtuous by the force of the law. However, it is also worth noting that only a correctly framed law will accomplish this rightly while a more hastily conceived law will not (1129b19-25).Aristotle concludes his discussion of complete justice by referring to it as ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"complete virtue or ex cellenceÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬? and claims that, in justice, ÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃÅ"every virtue is summed upÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬?. The reasoning Aristotle gives for this is that a just man not only makes use of this virtue in his own affairs, but also in affairs with fellow men. In short, Justice is the only virtue that considers the good of others as well as the good of oneself. The worst man for Aristotle is the man who does wickedness to both himself and others while the best man is he that practices virtue towards himself and others. Aristotle would not agree that virtue is the same as justice and that vice is the same as injustice. He concludes instead by saying that universal justice coincides with the whole of ethical virtue and universal injustice with the whole of ethical vice. As states and dispositions, justice and injustice are the same, but they also convey a relationship between man and his neighbors, which the terms virtue and vice do not (1130a8-13) .In recapitu lation, we have discovered that the highest of the moral virtues is universal justice. The distinguishing factor that sets justice apart from the other moral virtues is the fact that it is the only moral virtue that takes into consideration the good for ones neighbors, rather than only the good of the practitioner of the virtue. Finally, we have concluded that there is a connection between moral and intellectual virtue because one can only become morally virtuous through the practice of morally virtuous actions. However, moral virtue in the full sense cannot exist without right reason, which is determined by the intellectual virtue of practical wisdom. Therefore, we can conclude our examination of virtue in the Nicomachean Ethics with the assertion that moral virtue cannot exist without intellectual virtue.Works CitedAristotle, Nicomachean Ethics (translated by Martin Ostwald). Pentice Hall.New Jersey. 1999.Hardie, W.F.R. AristotleÃÆ'Ã ¢ÃâÃâ¬ÃâÃâ¢s Ethical Theory . Clarendon Press. Oxford. 1980.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
America has gone through many changes since its independence in 1776. However, as America was in the midst of itsÃ¢â¬â¢ Second World War, it became obvious that one thing that had yet to be entirely solved, racial discrimination. In the novel, If He Hollers Let Him Go, Chester Himes creates a wide variety of characters that all have a different, but concrete, view point on race and racial discrimination. The novel is about Bob Jones, a black man, who moves to California during World War II because he is tired of the extensive racial discrimination in Ohio. Bob begins to work at Atlas shipyard, one of the many shipyards that are responsible for producing ships, which was crucial during the time of war. Bob eventually becomes a leaderman in theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Mrs. Harrison believes that black people have to earn the white peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s respect, trust, freedoms and equality. Mrs. Harrison says to Bob, Ã¢â¬Å"You mustnÃ¢â¬â¢t think in terms of trying to get even with them, you must accept whatever they do for you and try to prove yourself worthy to be entrusted with moreÃ¢â¬ (52). She states that if black people work hard enough, the white people will reward them. She also wants the black community to wait for the white people to Ã¢â¬Å"giveÃ¢â¬ them something better, to accept what the white people Ã¢â¬Å"do for them.Ã¢â¬ She compares the idea of black and white people equality to communism. She tells Bob that he needs to make himself worthy of respect. Ã¢â¬Å"You know yourself, Bob, a lot of our people are just not worthy, they just donÃ¢â¬â¢t deserve anymore than theyÃ¢â¬â¢re gettingÃ¢â¬ (52). These comments illustrate how class has a great influence on Mrs. HarrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view on race. Without having to work and being rich, she is ignorant of the racial discrimination that a day to day skilled worker of BobÃ¢â¬â¢s color has to go through. Like her daughter Alice, Mrs. Harrison has been given special treatment b y the white people for her lighter skin, and her social and economic class. Alice is a very light skinned, black woman who could pass off as white without any makeup. She works as a supervisor of case work in city welfare. She came from the one of the richest Negro families on the West Coast. She is, in BobÃ¢â¬â¢s mind,Show MoreRelatedEssay on If He Hollers Let Him Go2781 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Chester HimesÃ¢â¬â¢s If He Hollers Let Him Go provides a graphic window into the world of racism where his protagonist, Bob Jones, outlines personal dreams that serve as a framework to recreate the reality of the overwhelming prejudice prevalent in the 1940s. The novel unfolds over a course of four to five days, where each day begins with a nightmare encountering various forms of racism. Throughout each dream, Jones elicits scenes of violence, with each one escalating in visual description and immoralRead MoreAnalysis Of Chester Himess If He Hollers Let Him Go1268 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn Chester HimesÃ¢â¬â¢, If He Hollers Let Him Go the racial tension be tween blacks and whites was perfectly portrayed by protagonist Bob Jones and white counterpart, Madge. The relationship between the two was a great example of the advantage that was taken of African Americans in the United States before the Civil Rights Movement. Being friends with someone opposite of your race was frowned upon. With that in mind, for a white woman and a black man to be in a relationship was completely unacceptableRead MoreAnalysis Of Chester Himes s If He Hollers Let Him Go 965 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIf He Hollers Let Him Go, a contemporary American novel published by Chester Himes in 1945, addresses multiple themes of racism and injustice during the World War II era throughout its pages, using the experience of a single black shipyard worker named Robert Jones. Jones awakes every morning in the wake of disturbing nightmares that center on his fears of the war, of racism, and of the thought that his own blackness might forever be the paramount obstacle in his searc h for total freedom. The protagonistRead MoreSummary Of An American Folk Tale By Americo Paredes1424 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthat of Chester Himes If He Hollers Let Him Go. Both stories deal with the issues of violence and racism, although in very different ways. Based on both works, I believe that Bob JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ figure leaves a more lasting and long-term consequence of racism. Chester HimesÃ¢â¬â¢ novel about Bob Jones has somewhat of an autobiographical touch to it. It is more persuasive in the way that, he and Bob have a lot in common. Even though ParedesÃ¢â¬â¢ character focuses on a real character he is made into a fictional, whereasRead MoreDouble Consciousness and Its Present State820 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesmust be said then, that the culturally and linguistically diverse California classrooms must integrate texts that examine the psychological state of double identity. Turning to Luis ValdezÃ¢â¬â¢ play Ã¢â¬Å"Zoot SuitÃ¢â¬ , Chester HimesÃ¢â¬â¢s protest novel If He Hollers Let Him Go, and Al YoungÃ¢â¬â¢s prose poem Ã¢â¬Å"Coastal Nights and Inland AfternoonsÃ¢â¬ , we encounter literature and characters with double identities that assist in navigating marginalized adolescents with their own struggles in understanding their multiculturalRead MoreAmst Final Essaay1183 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageshave made towards fixing the issue. The three main resources that I found really helpful for ways that the authors got their point across to the readers and or viewers about racial struggle is Birth of a Nation, Black isÃ¢â¬ ¦ Black AinÃ¢â¬â¢t and If He Hollers Let Him Go. In D.W. GriffithÃ¢â¬â¢s film, The Birth of a Nation we see how two different families the StonemanÃ¢â¬â¢s who are from the North and the CameronÃ¢â¬â¢s who are from the South who are close friends in the beginning are quickly torn apart because of differingRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem The Lil Divas 1024 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesschool, Mark Gallows, there s not much to say about him just that he is Caption of the Football team and every girl wants to date him for his perfect jawline, amazing blue eyes and his spiked up blonde hair. Also, heÃ¢â¬â¢s the twin of Amber. Grayson, Pandora and Scarlett the trio. Three different personality which makes them have the perfect friendship. Grayson Skie the only guy in the group. He might not look like he is into sports but actually he s in the football team. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s nerdy, funny, sweet,Read MoreHegemonic Masculinity : Characters And Plot Of The Popular Sitcom Two And A Half Men1720 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesis strongly evident in the clip Ã¢â¬Å"Charlie gives Alan some lessons.Ã¢â¬ Two and a half men is a popular sitcom centered around the lives of two brothers Charlie, Alan, and AlanÃ¢â¬â¢s son, Jake. Ever since Alan got a divorce from his wife and lost his house, he is financially unstable and dependent on his brother Charlie for a place to stay. Charlie plays the dominant masculine figure and hyper masculine role and enjoys the bachelor lifestyle around attractive women, and is financially and socially stableRead MoreThe Story Of Sara 1620 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbeneath it to the surface. He kneels down at her side, feeling for signs of life while taking in SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s grim appearance: no emotion registers on his brutish face when feeling her heartbeats, fading fast. Ã¢â¬Å"Who are you?Ã¢â¬ a Kingsman larger than him, appears in the doorway. He had heard the sounds and return to investigate. Ã¢â¬Å"WhereÃ¢â¬â¢s the boy?Ã¢â¬ the man questions in a commanding tone, rising to a stand, stepping over Sara. Ã¢â¬Å"WhereÃ¢â¬â¢s Marcus? Tell me, what your lieutenant has done with him?Ã¢â¬ The Kingsman reachesRead MoreThe Chemistry Lesson Of Bunsen Burners Essay833 Words Ã |Ã 4 PageswhoÃ¢â¬â¢s fuckin around, wearing a flammable jacket, and have him get too close to said Bunsen burner and POOFÃ¢â¬â he ignites. The fast acting teacher grabbed the easily lifted kid and stuck the top half of his hopefully soon to develop body, into the large lab tableÃ¢â¬â¢s sink in the front of the class. SSSSSSÃ¢â¬ ¦Distinguished. ~ GoldsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s Pipe: Mister Goldstein was kind of Mister Holler-ish (If you read that chappet, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll get the reference.) He was 1970 Ã¢â¬ËcoolÃ¢â¬â¢ with the air of a college professor with
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Women have been devalued by men for as long as people can remember. In the past, when men were off at war, women had to work jobs and keep business functioning routinely. Filling in the gaps the men left to go off to combat was no trouble for women, but as soon as the men returned, the women had to return to the kitchen. Women are the inferior option, the substitute if the male species were to be wiped out. Women arenÃ¢â¬â¢t acknowledged for all they are, nor are they given the same opportunities as men. In the story, Ã¢â¬Å"What if Shakespeare had a sisterÃ¢â¬ , Virginia Woolf discusses how incompetently women were regarded in society. Women were dispossessed of all their rights, being nothing more than a housewife, being restricted of their potential. In, Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, is a narrative of a woman being trapped and living in a patriarchal world. In the sonnet Ã¢â¬Å"QuincenaneraÃ¢â¬ Judith Ortiz Cofer, discusses a girl growing i nto a woman who knows she will be treated miserably by society. As portrayed in all these stories, a theme of women being deprived of their rights. Gilman and Cofer both defend WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s assertions about the contradiction of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s depiction compared to real life because of the expectations of reproductive work, devaluation, repercussions of women being denied of their true freedom, and sexism. The predictions of women were to do reproductive work and nothing more. Reproductive work means all the labor completed at home to sustainShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1269 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages15 February 2017 Analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ Life during the 1800s for a woman was rather distressing. Society had essentially designated them the role of being a housekeeper and bearing children. They had little to no voice on how they lived their daily lives. Men decided everything for them. To clash with society s conventional views is a challenging thing to do; however, Charlotte Perkins Gilman does an excellent job fighting that battle by writing Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow Wallpaper,Ã¢â¬ one of the mostRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of The Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1138 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLiterary Analysis of Symbolism in The Yellow Wallpaper During the late 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s, life for women was much different than it is today. Home and family were expected to be their priorities rather than education or the pursuit of a career in the professional world. Married women were not allowed to own property, keep the wages they earned or sign contracts. No woman could vote either. In short, women in the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s were essentially second class citizens. In The Yellow Wallpaper, Charlotte Perkins GilmanRead More A Critical Analysis of The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman1237 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages A Critical Analysis of The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman The Yellow Wallpaper written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman is a riveting story of a dejected woman locked away as if she were insane. Her passion is to write and by doing so we are able to follow her on a journey in which she is victimized by those closest to her. The significance of the story is tremendous as it delves into the underlying issues of a womans place and feminism in the 19th centuryRead MoreA Critical Analysis Of The Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1051 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEnglish 102 Esposito, Carmine. A Critical Analysis of The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman Charlotte Perkins Gilman was a famous social worker and a leading author of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s issues. Charlotte Perkins Gilman s relating to views of women s rights and her demands for economic and social reform of gender inequities are very famous for the foundations of American society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In critics Gilman ignored by people of color in the United StatesRead MoreAnalysis Of Charlotte Perkins Gilman s The Yellow Wallpaper 1047 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJacob Niemann PY.260.115.05: Humanities Core I 11/22/15 Niemann I What lies beneath Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ Written in 1892, Charlotte Perkins GilmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ is a short story that explores the mind of a woman who is driven to insanity by her surrounding environment. This woman, who narrates her experiences in a journal, begins by marveling at the grandeur of the estate her husband has taken for their summer vacation. 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While trying to get better, she canÃ¢â¬â¢t help but be fixated on the yellow wallpaper in her room. The yellow wallpaper in this story is a representation of the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with her disease. The exterior portion of the wallpaper is a portrayal of the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. At night, it Ã¢â¬Å"becomes barsÃ¢â¬ (Gilman 15). TheRead MoreCritical Analysis Of The Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1258 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Critical Essay #1 Yellow Wall Paper This gothic horror tale of nineteenth century fiction, written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman in 1892; during a time that women writers were starting to come out and write about key issues in their treatment. She craftily sets up or spins the story with a setting of isolation and a character who feels trapped, by a husband who chooses not to know her; yet does not listen to her and keeps her trapped on an island, all in her best interest. The tone is filled withRead MoreAnalysis Of Charlotte Perkins Gilman s The Yellow Wallpaper 839 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesShaquan Chavis 17 November, 2015 English 110 Professor. Cia Kessler Essay #4: Infantilization inside of the Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ The way woman were treated in the late 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s is totally different than today. At that time woman and men were not equal to each other. Women were confined to particular roles. The men usually played the dominant role which led women to just listen and follow their spouse. During that time woman were at the bottom of the social class. The regular household consistedRead MoreAnalysis Of The Chrysanthemums And The Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1842 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthat a dynamic character will be a protagonist in the story. Two great literary works, Ã¢â¬Å" The ChrysanthemumsÃ¢â¬ written by John Steinbeck and Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman both contain a dynamic character. Elisa Allen, a typical farmer in Ã¢â¬Å" The ChrysanthemumsÃ¢â¬ and the narrator, who suffers from depression in Ã¢â¬Å"The Yellow WallpaperÃ¢â¬ both experience obstacles that shift their mind set and idea of self worth in society. Elisa Al len and the narrator are both dynamic characters
Childhood Dreams Essay For my independent study topic I researched dreams. There are many differentapproaches philosophers have taken to explain dreams and what they mean. I willgo through a couple of them. Many of you may be asking yourself why do Idream?, there are several answers to that question. The first in thephysiological set. We dream in order to exercise our brains. When youreawake, messages are constantly speeding among all your billions of brain cellsto keep you moving and thinking and digesting an so on. So the idea is that whenyoure asleep, dreams exercise the pathways between brains cells. Acouple of ideas that might help this make sense are; the first couple of yearsof your life are the most intense for learning which is also when you have thegreatest amount of REM sleepwhich means your dreaming a lot. Another thing isyour brain waves during REM sleep look about the same as your brain waves whileyour awake. During other parts of sleep, the brain waves look very different (alot slower) There is also a psychological set of ideas about why we dream. Sincepsychology has to do with your thoughts and emotions it has been said dreams areactually about immediate concerns in our lives. In the bible and within a lot ofcultures dreams are thought to be prophetic, which means they can predict thefuture. Sigmund Freud a famous philosopher gave us a lot of ideas on how ourminds work and was very interested in interpreting dreams. He thought dreamscontained symbols hidden deep within our minds and memories.
Monday, April 20, 2020
Steroids Essay Example Paper Steroids Essay Introduction There is a huge national concern over the misuse and abuse of anabolic steroids for enhancement of muscular stature and performance among competitive athletes. Latest estimates have shown that approximately 5% of all high school students have used anabolic steroids, with almost half of the high students believing that these drugs are not harmful to their health. Drug enforcement legislations have included anabolic steroids in its list of traffic-controlled substances (21 USC Sec. 801 1/22/02; Schedule III). However, the bigger picture of the medical and research benefits of anabolic drugs have been overlooked due to the sensationalize media coverage of these drugs. Current scientific researches are still inconclusive on whether anabolic steroids are extremely unsafe for administration, opposite to what has been actively claimed by anti-drug officials and government authorities.The Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990 (ASCA) was established to regulate the distribution of anabolic ste roids in the United States. The Drug Enforcement Administration of the U.S. Department of Justice has been mandated to implement measures to protect the people from these dangerous drugs. A four-part definition of anabolic steroids serves as a blueprint to identify any analogues of the chemical substance that may be uncontrollably dispensed to athletes and other youths. The definition included substances that are chemically and pharmacologically similar to testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, as well as a very close likeness in its enhancement for muscle growth. The Act classified anabolic steroids in the same category as barbiturates and LSD precursors and claim that these substances result in dangerous effects to the human body. The Act declares that any individual caught in the possession of these anabolic steroids will be arrested and prosecuted. The list of anabolic steroids in the Act is continuously being updated, as new versions of these drugs are progressively being create d through the years.Anabolic androgenic steroids are testosterone derivatives that are mainly used for muscle and performance enhancement. These drugs are frequently used by competitive athletes in order to achieve an edge or better control of their physical strength and performance during professional sports games. Retrospective surveys indicated that anabolic steroids have been used since the 1960s to date (Duchaine, 1983), with current national user rates ranging from 3% to 9% among high school students alone. The exact effect of anabolic steroids in the developing human body has not been fully studied, and the increase in number of reports of teenage athletes committing suicide has called the attention of the legislation to assess and review drug enforcement laws covering this specific drug.It has been reported that the prolonged use of anabolic steroids have may cause a number of adverse effects to the human body, including liver damage, gynecomastia, atherogenesis, psychiatric disorders such as aggression and violence, and even death (Balbigian, 2001; Brower, 2002; Glazer, 1991; Pope and Katz, 1990; Malone et al. 1995). Investigations on the nationwide use of anabolic steroids have prompted Congress to establish the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990, which mainly indicates that the non-medical employment of anabolic steroids is punishable by law. Any violations will be penalized by at least 15 days to 5 years imprisonment and/or $1,000 to $1,000,000 fine, depending on the extent of the violation. So far, the general public has supported the Anabolic Steroid Control Act, mostly due to the massive and militant media coverage of the topic.The Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990 classified anabolic steroids as any drug or substance related to testosterone and used for muscle growth increase. They are Schedule III of controlled substances. The Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004 amendment added hormone precursors such as androstenedione and androstenedio l as controlled substances without a prescription. Most anabolic steroids used in the United States come through the black market from other countries. Even though sources may state the steroids are made by pharmacists and physicians, no one actually knows who produced them or how they were produced. Some were produced in non-sterile environments while others may be for the use of animals but sold for human use. Production of steroids sold illegally may have substitutions or other problems which can cause the contents to be dangerous Ã¢â¬â even lethal. Many sold via the internet are fake steroids which have contained cooking oil or toxic substances that produced methanol and/or blood poisoning. Incorrect packaged doses and tampering of the product can also be suspected. Since some users use more than one steroid at a time, dangers of consuming bad substances is increased. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t know how some of those ingredients will react together.Some research indicates anabolic ster oid use may lead users to other illegal and/or legal drugs to counteract some of the side effects, especially for insomnia. There is a limited amount of research and studies in this area. A list of possible physical and psychological side-effects of anabolic steroid use has been reported. These include coronary heart disease, which specifically increases the thickness and enlargement of the left ventricle. Another side-effect is the decreased size of the userÃ¢â¬â¢s testicles, as well as the experience of immunodeficiencies. The athlete who has taken anabolic steroids will also feel invincible and will actually show an aggressive behavior. It has been reported the Hitler historically used anabolic steroids during World War II in order to increase his aggressiveness towards his troops. In terms of damage to human health, anabolic steroids destroy the liver as well as transform connective tissues to a condition that these are easily injured or torn.Adolescents taking anabolic steroi ds have been reported to show stunted growth and suffer from blood clots and insomnia or unusual sleep patterns. In terms of the effects of anabolic steroid on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s blood chemistry, there are reported that a user will experience an elevated LDL cholesterol level as well as a lowering of HDL cholesterol level. Interestingly, adults taking anabolic steroids experience moderate to severe acne because anabolic steroids influence changes in his endocrine system. An anabolic steroid user also faces the chance of acquiring prostate cancer at an earlier age. Certain male anabolic steroid users observe that their breasts start developing and some users experience temporary to permanent infertility. Other users have stimulated appetites, psychoses and mood swings. Increasing the dosage and combining steroids also increases risks of possible side effects. Some side effects can be reversed after stoppage of steroid use and other effects cannot be reversed. It should be noted t hat the results of side effects may take months or years before they are apparent Ã¢â¬â even after the individual has stopped using them. Recent evidence indicates withdrawal symptoms occur in long-term users who stop using anabolic steroids.However, the actual negative effects of the use of anabolic steroidal drugs have not been comprehensively investigated to date, and that the reports that have been disclosed in the media have been isolated cases picked out from millions of cases of teenage users around the United States. Scientifically, the adverse effects from the prolonged use of anabolic steroids remain inconclusive to date, and in actuality, anabolic steroid use has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of medical disorders. In one report, it has lately been determined that the effect of an anabolic steroid to the treatment of weight loss in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is equivalently effective and safe as compared to the commonly administe red recombinant growth hormone that has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (Storer et al. 2005). In another scenario, the administration of an anabolic steroid has been beneficial in prostate cancer patients by preventing further migration of prostate cancer cells to other parts of the body (Guerini et al. 2005). The anabolic steroid oxandrolone has been successfully used in the treatment of muscle loss in patients diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and may be a potential powerful candidate for general treatment of such types of patients (Balagopal et al. 2006).Scientific research shows that anabolic steroids provide more beneficial effects than what has been claimed by legislation as serious, adverse effects to the human body. More so, the negative reports that have associated with the use of anabolic steroids have not been investigated scientifically and have only achieved much attention through the help of media and press coverage. Therefore, it is imperati ve that the legislative bodies review the restrictions associated with the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990 and fully determine the actual effects of anabolic steroid intake. It is regretful to know that there are other drugs and activities that are much more deleterious or harmful to people but are not actively controlled by the Senate, including smoking, cosmetic surgery and over-the-counter drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen, which has caused even more cases of deaths and hospitalizations that anabolic steroids.Based on the above information on the current status, knowledge and use of anabolic steroids, several advocacy groups have proposed that anabolic steroids be legalized for use in the United States. In turn, these groups emphasize the need for further scientific research to determine the mechanisms of action of each type of anabolic drug to gain a better understanding of its indications and contraindications. There should be a comprehensive survey on the frequency of u se of anabolic steroids across the human population, with stratified categories of users such as teenage athletes, geriatric patients, cancer patients, and so on. Any cases that report any adverse effect from use of anabolic steroids should be properly documented and analyzed. Should there be sufficient reason that anabolic steroids be stopped from circulation in the community, these advocacy groups are willing to review these effects once significant information has been gathered from reliable reports.; Steroids Essay Thank you for reading this Sample!
Sunday, March 15, 2020
The Vikings essays Vikings, the term is given to a race of Scandinavian people who raided and settled in large areas of eastern and Western Europe during a period of Scandinavian expansion from about 800 to 1100. The term came from an old English word wic, which is a derivation from a Latin word meaning trading-place but for the people of the medieval age the term was used as synonym for barbarian paganism. The Vikings were an amazing race of people who immigrated and fought to survive. They originated from Norway, Sweden and Denmark. These three main groups of Vikings expanded through out Europe, but the ones this topic are interested in are the Danish and Norwegian Vikings who settled in Northern and Eastern Europe. These Scandinavians moved to find new lands, mainly because of overpopulation and scarcity. The Danish Vikings had an enormous impact on Britain and most of Charlemagnes empire, which was mainly France. They practically changed the culture with their art and craftsmanship; they influenced the language and government, with an idea of justice. They improved the European warfare with their famous boats. Vikings have influenced Europe in so many ways that it is hard to believe that the 18th Century idea that they were bloodthirsty warmongers was true. The idea of the fierce warrior was brought up when a group of Norsemen attacked a monastery on the island of Lindesfarne. A surviving monk wrote and account of the raid afterwards. "The same year the heathens arrived from the north to Brittany with a fleet of ships. They were like stinging wasps, and they spread in all directions like horrible wolves, wrecking, robbing, shattering and killing not only animals but also priests, monks and nuns. They came to the church of Lindesfarne, slayed everything alive, dug up the altars and took all the treasures of the holy church". The Norsemen probably picked churches and monasteries probably because they ha...
Friday, February 28, 2020
Martin Luther King College - Essay Example stood by the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. Much to the knowledge of everyone, he delivered what is regarded as one of the greatest speeches in American history. King himself seemed to sense the historic importance of the moment as he opened his "I Have a Dream" speech by calling the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom "the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation." The landmark protest, which drew more than 200,000 people, announced a turning point in the civil rights movement and set the stage for the movement's two most important legislative achievements, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (Microsoft Encarta 2005). It is interesting to speculate on what the course of American history might have been, if Martin Luther King, Jr. had not gone to Montgomery, Alabama in 1954. But he did go, and the America he had grown up in was forever changed. The historic bus boycott that began there in late 1955 brought him national recognition and triggered a decade of direct-action protest that permanently altered the status of black Americans. Andrew Young once said that Rosa Parks thrust greatness upon King. Rosa Parks is a leading member of the local branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), who was famous for her refusal to give her bus seat to a white man. Certainly she shaped the setting in which he emerged as a national figure and challenged him to translate his theory of nonviolence into practice. King had no intention of initiating a major campaign in Montgomery, but Mrs. Parks' refusal to yield her bus seat to a white man on December 1, 1955 forced the first s erious test of King's willingness to undergo personal sacrifice for the sake of Negro freedom. She has never claimed much credit for what happened in Montgomery, but Rosa Parks' action was a catalyst in King's rise to prominence and the emergence of the southern civil rights movement that dominated American social history for a decade (SCLC/NH, National Conventions, 1980). Local leaders of the NAACP, especially Edgar D. Nixon, recognized that the arrest of the popular and highly respected Parks was the event that could rally local blacks to a bus protest. Nixonalsobelievedthat a citywide protest should be led by someone who could unify the community. Unlike Nixon and other leaders in Montgomery's black community, the recently arrived King had no enemies. Furthermore, Nixon saw King's public-speaking gifts as great assets in the battle for black civil rights in Montgomery. King was soon chosen as president of the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA), the organization that directed the bus boycott. By the time the Supreme Court upheld the lower court decision in November 1956, King prominence elevated him to become leading black national figure. His memoir of the bus boycott, Stride Toward Freedom (1958), provided a thoughtful account of that experience and further extended King's national influence. Another important contribution of King is the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), an organization of black churches and ministers that aimed to challenge racial segregation. As SCLC's president, King became the organization's dominant personality and its primary intellectual