Thursday, September 3, 2020

Audrey Flack, Pioneer of Photorealism

Audrey Flack, Pioneer of Photorealism Audrey Flack, conceived May 30, 1931, is an American craftsman. Her work, principally painting and figure, has put her at the front line of pop craftsmanship and photorealism. Quick Facts: Audrey Flack Full Name: Audrey L. FlackOccupation: ArtistKnown For: Pioneering the photorealist kind of craftsmanship, especially with depictions of ladies, ordinary articles, and minutes in moderately late history.Born: May 30, 1931 in New York CityNotable Works: Kennedy Motorcade (1964), Marilyn (Vanitas) (1977), World War II (Vanitas) (1978) Early Life and Education Flack was conceived in New York City in 1931, in the northern Manhattan neighborhood of Washington Heights. As a young person, she went to a particular expressions open establishment, the High School of Music and Art. Her proper craftsmanship instruction started in 1948, when she started her investigations at New York’s Cooper Union. Flack stayed there until 1951 and was then enrolled to Yale, to a great extent on account of the impact of German-American craftsman Josef Albers (who was then responsible for Yale’s workmanship office). While at Yale, Flack kept building up her own style while being impacted by her instructors and tutors. Specifically, her initial work showed an Abstract Expressionist style in the vein of Albers’ work. Flack graduated with her Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in 1952. The next year, she came back to New York and read craftsmanship history for a year at New York University’s Institute of Fine Arts. Conceptual to Realism From the outset, Flack’s work during the 1950s was an away from of her preparation with dynamic expressionists. She likewise grasped â€Å"kitschiness† in a mindful, amusing way. Notwithstanding, as time went on, she started to feel that the theoretical expressionist style she was using was not accomplishing what she felt was a significant objective: speaking with crowds. Due to this craving to make workmanship that was more clear to watchers, Flack started moving towards authenticity. <img information srcset= 300w, 481w, 662w, 1024w information src= src=//:0 alt=Audrey Flack class=lazyload information click-tracked=true information img-lightbox=true information expand=300 id=mntl-sc-square image_1-0-11 information following container=true /> Representation of craftsman Audrey Flack sits close to an artistic creation of President John F. Kennedy and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy riding in the rear of a limousine on the day he was killed.  Nancy R. Schiff/Getty Images She joined up with the Art Students League (ASL), where she examined life structures under the tutelage of Robert Beverly Hale, and started discovering motivation in craftsmen from past periods as opposed to later developments. Her work started to be classified in the â€Å"New Realism† development, and, in the long run, moved right into photorealism, in which a craftsman endeavors to replicate a captured picture as sensibly as conceivable in an alternate medium. Flack was one of the principal understudies at the ASL to completely grasp photorealism and use photos as reference for her work. Photorealism, from multiple points of view, is a sister class to pop workmanship: delineating common, ordinary things, frequently as still-lifes that impersonate the authenticity of photography as intently as could be expected under the circumstances. In 1966, Flack turned into the main photorealist painter to have work in the assortment at the Museum of Modern Art.â Expanded Influence Sometimes, Flack’s work moved past the run of the mill still life artistic creations and delineated verifiable occasions. One of her most popular works is Kennedy Motorcade, November 22, 1963, which, as its title proposes, delineates a scene from the death of President John F. Kennedy. Her verifiable artistic creations, including her Vanitas works, regularly highlighted a socio-political editorial. Her still life works of art frequently did also; for example, her artistic creations of female-coded things, for example, cosmetics and fragrance bottles would in general include some discourse on sexual orientation jobs and builds. <img information srcset= 300w, 481w, 662w, 1024w information src= src=//:0 alt=Artist Audrey Flack class=lazyload information click-tracked=true information img-lightbox=true information expand=300 id=mntl-sc-square image_1-0-19 information following container=true /> Representation of display proprietor Louis Meisel and craftsman Audrey Flack and her hyper-pragmatist painting of Marilyn Monroe, New York, New York, March 10, 1978. Allan Tannenbaum/Getty Images In the mid 1970s, Flack built up another strategy for her works of art. Rather than simply utilizing a photo as a kind of perspective, she really anticipated it as a slide onto the canvas, at that point built up a digitally embellishing strategy to make the layers of paint. The 1970s additionally observed Flack paint her Vanitas arrangement, which delineated everything from gems to scenes of WWII inhumane imprisonments. By the 1980s, be that as it may, Flack had changed her essential medium from painting to design. She is totally self-educated in mold, instead of her noteworthy conventional preparing in painting. There are likewise other noteworthy contrasts in her sculptural works versus her artworks. For example, where her works of art concentrated on normal items or recorded scenes, her models will in general delineate strict and legendary subjects. Generally, ladies are portrayed in her models, speaking to some degree admired yet defective and various minor departure from the female structure and gentility itself. Contemporary Work During the 1990s and 2000s, Flack had a considerable lot of work appointed. At a certain point, she was charged to make a sculpture of Catherine of Braganza, the British sovereign after whom the New York City precinct of Queens was named; the undertaking met with a few protests and was rarely finished. All the more as of late, her sculptures Recording Angel and Colossal Head of Daphneâ (both finished somewhere in the range of 2006 and 2008) were dispatched by and introduced in Nashville, Tennessee. <img information srcset= 300w, 481w, 662w, 1024w information src= src=//:0 alt=Audrey Flack's 'Recording Angel' class=lazyload information click-tracked=true information img-lightbox=true information expand=300 id=mntl-sc-square image_1-0-27 information following container=true /> Audrey Flacks Recording Angel sculpture remains outside the Schermerhorn Symphony Center in Nashville, Tennessee.  Raymond Boyd/Getty Images In later years, Flack has come back to her underlying foundations. Finding the photorealist development rather â€Å"restricting,† she moved back to Baroque impacts. She composed a book in 1986, gathering her contemplations on craftsmanship and being a craftsman. Flack has likewise instructed and addressed both in America and abroad. Right now, she is a privileged educator at George Washington University and a meeting teacher at the University of Pennsylvania. She is based out of New York, where she parts her time between New York City and Long Island. Sources Blumberg, Naomi and Ida Yalzadeh. â€Å"Audrey Flack: American Painter and Sculptor.† Encyclopedia Britannica, story/Audrey-Flack.Flack, Audrey. Art Soul: Notes on Creating, New York, Dutton, 1986.Morgan, Robert C. â€Å"Audrey Flack and the Revolution of Still Life Painting.† The Brooklyn Rail, 5 Nov. 2010, https://brooklynr

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Estonia Gender Problems Essay Example for Free

Estonia Gender Problems Essay From the beginning of time, ladies have continually battled for equivalent rights. Be that as it may, significantly after ladies have increased expanded correspondence in numerous nations, sexual orientation imbalance despite everything exists on a universal scale. The European nation Estonia, specifically, faces a recognizably more prominent hole among men’s and women’s rights in examination with its European neighbors. In spite of the Estonian Gender Equality Law went in 2004, sexism and sex generalizations are still to a great extent common in Estonia’s government and society. The issue of sex imbalance has adversely affected Estonian ladies in monetary, social, and political parts of life in Estonia. One significant aftereffect of sexual orientation disparity is the constraining of monetary open doors for ladies. On account of customary sexual orientation generalizations, Estonian ladies are accepted to be less significant in the work environment than men. This type of sexism has intensely affected the capacity of ladies to get and keep up work and pay: â€Å"in the 1990s women’s joblessness surpassed that of men (38.3% of ladies and 24.7% of men)† (Erickson 278). Notwithstanding the high joblessness rate for ladies, Estonia’s pay hole (the distinction among men and women’s compensation for a similar activity) is at present the most elevated in Europe: â€Å"women are paid over 30% not as much as men for the equivalent profession† (Domsch 73). Since Estonian ladies are monetarily burdened by unreasonable work and pay, numerous ladies are compelled to turn out to be financially reliant on their spouses or fathers. Generally speaking, Estonia†™s enormous compensation hole mirrors its financial sexism and the adverse impacts of sexual orientation disparity on ladies. Sex disparity in Estonia has likewise prompted social preference against ladies. Since Estonia’s fuse into the Soviet Union, sex jobs have been profoundly settled into Estonian culture. These sexual orientation jobs direct what ladies are permitted to do and what little effective reaches they have on financial matters, government, and legislative issues. Sexual orientation jobs have additionally unavoidably prompted sexism: â€Å"The connection among people on a cultural level speaks to relationship with inconsistent force dissemination, where men overwhelm and ladies are subjected or under-spoke to in many circles of life.† (Morten para. 6). The social strength of men originates from Estonia’s fuse into the Soviet Union in 1940. During this period, Estonia’s once Western mentalities and perspectives on sex equity moved to Soviet-focused convictions, which underscored the significance of agreeable ladies who served men. Despite the fact that the Soviet Union regularly utilized women's activist purposeful publicity to urge ladies to work, ladies were habitually treated unjustifiably at home and in the public eye. The sexual orientation jobs set up during the Soviet Union period keep on assuming a significant job in Estonia’s society today. Sex imbalance is pervasive in both the family unit, where men are relied upon to apply strength over their spouses, and in get-togethers, where women’s conclusions are held in lower regard (Domsch 148). In synopsis, sexual orientation imbalance in Estonia has prompted social victimization ladies. Another significant aftereffect of sex disparity is the political preference that Estonian ladies face. After World War II, a period where Estonia was strategically and monetarily run by ladies because of an absence of men, the Communist Party restored men in the decision assemblages of Estonia. During this period, Estonian ladies were expelled from legislative issues and their political force was subverted. Recently, a few endeavors have been made to take care of the political sexual orientation imbalance issue. In 2004, the legislature passed the Gender Equality Act to guarantee that ladies had equivalent political force and monetary strength (Domsch 127). In any case, a large number of the rights ensured in the Gender Equality Act were previous in the Constitution of Estonia. By and by, ladies still can't seem to see genuine equity in political or monetary perspectives. For instance, an ongoing report demonstrated that â€Å"roughly 8% of Estonian government positions are held by ladies, while just 20% of parliament individuals are women† (Morten para. 4). The little level of ladies in Estonia’s government legitimately thinks about the sexism in Estonian legislative issues. Estonia’s male and female populaces, however equivalent in size, are not similarly politically spoken to, as appeared by the obviously imbalanced sexual orientation proportion in their legislature. In general, albeit little advances have been made toward sexual orientation value, sexism and sex disparity are still broadly surviving, and have prompted nearly less political strengthening for Estonian ladies. Despite the fact that women’s rights have been improved globally, numerous nations despite everything face difficulties in setting up obvious sexual orientation uniformity. Estonia at present faces noteworthy issues for ladies in many significant parts of society. Beginning from Estonia’s fuse into the Soviet Union after World War II, sexual orientation generalizations have contrarily influenced Estonian ladies right up 'til today. With one of the biggest compensation holes among people in Europe, Estonia has an essentially imbalanced sexual orientation proportion for work. Moreover, sexism has additionally prompted the decreased social and political intensity of ladies in Estonian culture. In spite of the ongoing upgrades that have been made by the Estonian government in the previous decade, the financial, social, and political chances of Estonian ladies are still seriously restricted by sexual orientation disparity.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Children gender and toys

Libyan Negotiations to Join the World Trade Organization - Dissertation Example The World Trade Organization was created as the replacement of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade or GATT was at first evolved as a global association managing multilateral understandings that attention on monetary participation on an overall level. It was grown together with the Bretton Woods establishments †the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. At the point when it was set up, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade were only formed on twenty-three individuals. As time cruised by, the participation in that has expanded to fifty which thusly additionally propelled the activities relating to the foundation of the World Trade Organization. As reflected in the previous pieces of this presentation, the foundation of the World Trade Organization is introduced on its ability to uphold worldwide exchanging by giving significant guidelines and guidelines related thereto. The advocates of the World Trade Organiz ation have then been answerable for the advancement of the sanction of the previous. In a similar way, they are likewise given the undertaking to concoct two-sided or multilateral understandings that spread the accompanying in the worldwide field: (1) work, (2) strategic policies, and (3) ventures. At long last, the individuals from the World Trade Organization are likewise worried about the critical decrease of exchange limitations in order to have the option to appropriately actualize the principles of facilitated commerce, as imagined by the World Trade Organization.... ablishment of the World Trade Organization is prefaced on its ability to uphold worldwide exchanging by giving significant standards and guidelines related thereto. The defenders of the World Trade Organization have then been liable for the advancement of the sanction of the previous. In a similar way, they are likewise given the undertaking to concoct two-sided or multilateral understandings that spread the accompanying in the worldwide field: (1) work, (2) strategic approaches, and (3) ventures. At last, the individuals from the World Trade Organization are likewise worried about the noteworthy decrease of exchange limitations in order to have the option to appropriately execute the fundamentals of facilitated commerce, as imagined by the World Trade Organization. 8 9 The foundation of the World Trade Organization has in like manner been moved by the result of the two World Wars.10 Indeed, nations everywhere throughout the world have distinguished the two World Wars just as the Gre at Depression as the darkest years throughout the entire existence of human kind.11 It is according to this reality that they have considered the hugeness undertaking different strides so as to advance progress.12 Parenthetically, the foundation of universal establishments is commenced on the need to advance worldwide harmony as well as, worldwide thriving. Indeed, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the forerunner of the World Trade Organization was basically settled as a road where questions identified with exchange can be submitted.13 14 The prompt and powerful goals of these exchange debates is regarded of principal significance in the endeavor to decrease the odds of a whole new World War. The confounded issue identified with globalization is one of the significant wellsprings of debates among nations. Subsequently thereof, it is of most extreme

Tuesday, June 9, 2020

Virtue in Aristotles Ethics - Literature Essay Samples

Aristotle devotes the first six books of his Nicomachean Ethics to a discussion of virtue. In doing so he divides virtue into two different categories: moral virtue and intellectual virtue and discusses them individually. However, in our approach to the question of the highest moral virtue, we will examine moral and intellectual virtue together (rather than separately) for the purpose of not only discerning what Aristotle deems this virtue to be, but also examine whether or not there is a connection between the two different types of virtue. Although Aristotle believes moral virtues to be of extreme importance, we will find that even the highest of the moral virtues would be unable to exist if it were not for the intellectual virtues.According to Aristotle, intellectual virtues are developed by teaching and instruction while moral virtues are developed by practice or force of habit. Moral virtues are not naturally instilled in us; the soul is designed to receive moral virtues, bu t in order to develop into guiding forces they must be nurtured by habit. The soul acquires moral virtue by exercising it, just as the harpist learns to play the harp by playing it and men become builders by building homes (1103a14-1103b2). A morally virtuous character is not brought about by thought, but rather, through action.The next thing Aristotle believes we must understand about virtue is the concept of moderation. He first notes that the nature of moral qualities is destroyed by both defect and excess (1104a12-13). As examples of this, Aristotle notes that both too much and too little food and drink will destroy our health, while the proportionate amount increases and preserves it. Applying these doctrines to virtue, Aristotle finds that the man who shuns everything becomes a coward while the man who knows no fear becomes reckless. In all things, virtue represents a middle ground between too much and too little (1104a15-27).Aristotle ends Book Two with a warning about r eferring to the virtuous mean as being the opposite of one of the extremes rather than the middle ground between them. If we were to take a few examples from Book Three, we may be inclined to say that courage is the opposite of cowardice and that temperance is the opposite of licentiousness. This, according to Aristotle, is an incorrect assertion, as can be demonstrated from the diagram below:Recklessness - Courage - CowardiceIn drawing a ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"lineÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€? diagram such as the one we see above, it is actually recklessness, rather than courage that is the opposite of cowardice. Courage, rather, is the ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"meanÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€? or the virtue between the two vices. Although we may be inclined to make statements to the contrary, virtue in all things is that which seeks the mean.The next thing we must understand about virtue comes from Book Three, which deals with what Aristotle calls voluntary and involuntary actions. All mor ally virtuous conduct is rooted in voluntary action. Aristotle writes that an involuntary action is one that is performed under constraint or through ignorance, while a voluntary action, is one in which the initiative lies with the agent who knows the particular circumstances in which the action is performed (1111a21-4). An act is completely involuntary only when its sole cause is not the person performing it, but an external force or person (for example, a person pushes you from behind into another person) (1110a1-5). Other forms of involuntary action are acts performed through ignorance (when the person is ignorant of the particular situation) or in ignorance (when an action is performed due to drunkenness or immorality) (1110b15-35).Voluntary action, on the other hand, implies choice. Aristotle carefully distinguishes choice from opinion and argues that true choice implies that the person choosing can determine that one action is preferable to another (1112a2-15). Therefore, the concept of choice also implies deliberation when we are put into a situation where the most preferable action is unclear. According to Aristotle we never deliberate about ends, but rather, we take the ends for granted and deliberate about how to achieve the best ends (1112b32-35). Because the object of deliberation and the object of choice are the same for Aristotle (1113a3), and because we can only deliberate between options that are within our power (1112a32), a choice must be considered review of things that lie in our power (1113a10-14).In choosing, those of good character will always aim for the good. However, those who are not of good character may understand things incorrectly, and may only wish for what they believe to be good. Both good and vice, therefore, lie within human power, and it is very possible for people to voluntarily choose vice. If we were to deny this, we would also have to deny that man is the source of his own actions (1113b8-21). Aristotle supports this explanation through an examination of how lawgivers reward those who act nobly and punish those who do evil (except evil that is done under some constraint or due to ignorance that exists through no fault of their own). Just as people are responsible for their own bad actions, they are also responsible for their moral states. If someone falls into a bad moral condition, it is his own fault for leading a bad life (1113b21-9).Knowing AristotleÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚™s requirements for obtaining moral virtue are extremely important because they have a direct bearing on the relationship between moral and intellectual virtue. The relationship between moral and intellectual virtue is discussed at length in Book Six. He begins Book Six by returning to his fundamental premise that virtue is distinguished from vice by voluntary action that involves some level of reasoning. Reasoning occurs through deliberation and choice as described above.There are five intellectual virtues ac cording to Aristotle: science, art, practical wisdom , intellect, and theoretical wisdom. Of these five virtues, he gives the most attention to practical wisdom. He argues that practical wisdom is the intellectual virtue of the same part of the soul that forms opinions and that unlike art (which is concerned with production and results in an object distinct from the process of making it) practical wisdom concerns the realm of action where ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"doing goodÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€? is in itself an end. Therefore, practical wisdom is an intellectual virtue that enables one to grasp the truth about human action.The mark of a prudent person is that they deliberate well ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€ not just about what is good and advantageous in a particular situation, but also, about what is conductive to the good life in general (1140a25-28). He who deliberates well, according to Aristotle, deliberates correctly, and this correctness is restricts deliberation to activities that enable one to arrive at a good (1142b8-22). Earlier, we found that Aristotle established this kind of ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"correctÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€? deliberation as a pre-requisite to arriving at moral virtue, so it logically follows that for a person to be truly good they must be able to deliberate well, and thus, have practical wisdom.However, a problem would necessarily arise if a wicked man were to use practical wisdom and the power to deliberate to arrive at something evil. Aristotle responds to this objection by citing a difference between practical wisdom and what he refers to as ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"knavishnessÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€?. Both practical wisdom and knavishness are the power to perform those steps that are conductive to a goal we have set for ourselves. The crucial difference is that practical wisdom involves some vision of good as it appears to the virtuous person whereas knavishness does not necessarily result in a good end (1144a29-37).Based on Ar istotleÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚™s definition as to what would be required to arrive at moral virtue, it would appear as if one would not be able to arrive at moral virtue if one did not first possess the intellectual virtue of practical wisdom. Moral virtue is learned through the voluntary performance of morally virtuous activities, and for an action to be voluntary, it necessarily involves deliberation. However, AristotleÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚™s arguments on practical wisdom appear to suggest that the imprudent man would be incapable of such deliberation, because deliberative excellence is the mark of practical wisdom. Therefore, one would need to be taught the intellectual virtue of practical wisdom before one could practice any of the moral virtues. On the other hand, the only difference between ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"practical wisdomÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€? and ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"knavishnessÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€? is the goal each seeks to attain. Practical wisdo m involves deliberation towards goals that are said to be ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"goodÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€? while knavishness is deliberation towards goals that are deemed to be ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"badÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€?. However, it would seem that for a person would need some amount of moral virtue to distinguish between which goal is ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"goodÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€? and ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"badÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€?. This forces us to conclude that practical wisdom requires moral virtue and we are left with a circular argument.Aristotle responds to this objection by showing that just as practical wisdom and knavishness are similar, that there is a similarity in what he calls ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"natural virtueÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€? and ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"virtue in the full senseÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€? (1144b3-4). He notes that from the time of our birth we all tend to possess some level of virtue, however, we tend to seek something in additi on to what we are born with. The virtue we seek is what he calls ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"virtue in the full senseÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€?, and argues that it is not possible to attain this virtue without practical wisdom. Aristotle asserts that if we were to attempt to attain moral virtue without practical wisdom, the action would be similar to ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"a mighty body that, moving without vision, comes to a mighty fallÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€? (1144b10-20).Aristotle concludes Book Six by arguing that virtue in the full sense cannot be obtained without practical wisdom, and he argues that this definition has led some people to believe that all virtues are forms of practical wisdom. Most important in this re-examination of practical wisdom and moral virtue is his assertion that virtue is a characteristic guided by ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"right reasonÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€?, which is determined by practical wisdom (1144b16-24). However, Aristotle finds it necessary to go be yond this simple redefinition, and goes on to argue that right reason in moral matters is practical wisdom. Therefore, right reason is what makes us virtuous and we can logically conclude that once we possess the single intellectual virtue of practical wisdom, we will possess all of the moral virtues (1145a2-4).Now that we have a solid understanding of virtue, we are able to return to the question of moral virtue. Aristotle spends part of Book Three and all of Book Four describing the different moral virtues through application of his concept of the mean. However, none of these virtues receive the same amoun of attention as the virtue of justice, which is discussed throughout the entire text of Book Five. It is not surprising that he gives this amount of space to his discussion of justice, because for Aristotle, justice is the highest of the moral virtues.For Aristotle, there are two different kinds of justice: universal justice and particular justice. For our purposes, Arist otleÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚™s definition of universal justice is, by far, the most important. Aristotle looks at the definition of its opposite, or what it means to be unjust. His begins this discussion with an examination of the unjust man. He writes ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"we regard as unjust both a lawbreaker and also a man who takes more than his share, so that obviously a law-abiding and a fair man will be just. Consequently, ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"justÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€? is what is lawful and fair, and unjust is what is unlawful and unfairÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€? (1129a32-1129b1). Aristotle also notes in defining the unjust man that ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"unfairnessÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€? does not necessarily have to do with those things that are larger in size. For example, when presented with a choice of bad things the unjust man will take the smallest share. Therefore, unfairness includes both taking more than ones share of those things deemed to be ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ €šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"goodÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€? and less than ones share of those things deemed to be ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"badÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€? (1129b7-10).Universal justice then, for Aristotle, is manifest in obedience to law. With regard to these laws, Aristotle makes two assertions. The first assertion is that they aim at producing or preserving happiness or ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"the common interest either of all or of the best or of those who hold powerÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€? (129b14-19). The second assertion is that they prescribe conduct in accordance with the virtues and forbid conduct that is vicious. Therefore, men living in a political order are compelled to be virtuous by the force of the law. However, it is also worth noting that only a correctly framed law will accomplish this rightly while a more hastily conceived law will not (1129b19-25).Aristotle concludes his discussion of complete justice by referring to it as ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"complete virtue or ex cellenceÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€? and claims that, in justice, ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚ÂÅ"every virtue is summed upÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€?. The reasoning Aristotle gives for this is that a just man not only makes use of this virtue in his own affairs, but also in affairs with fellow men. In short, Justice is the only virtue that considers the good of others as well as the good of oneself. The worst man for Aristotle is the man who does wickedness to both himself and others while the best man is he that practices virtue towards himself and others. Aristotle would not agree that virtue is the same as justice and that vice is the same as injustice. He concludes instead by saying that universal justice coincides with the whole of ethical virtue and universal injustice with the whole of ethical vice. As states and dispositions, justice and injustice are the same, but they also convey a relationship between man and his neighbors, which the terms virtue and vice do not (1130a8-13) .In recapitu lation, we have discovered that the highest of the moral virtues is universal justice. The distinguishing factor that sets justice apart from the other moral virtues is the fact that it is the only moral virtue that takes into consideration the good for ones neighbors, rather than only the good of the practitioner of the virtue. Finally, we have concluded that there is a connection between moral and intellectual virtue because one can only become morally virtuous through the practice of morally virtuous actions. However, moral virtue in the full sense cannot exist without right reason, which is determined by the intellectual virtue of practical wisdom. Therefore, we can conclude our examination of virtue in the Nicomachean Ethics with the assertion that moral virtue cannot exist without intellectual virtue.Works CitedAristotle, Nicomachean Ethics (translated by Martin Ostwald). Pentice Hall.New Jersey. 1999.Hardie, W.F.R. AristotleÃÆ' ¢Ãƒâ€šÃ‚€Ã‚™s Ethical Theory . Clarendon Press. Oxford. 1980.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Essay on If He Hollers Let Him Go - 1529 Words

America has gone through many changes since its independence in 1776. However, as America was in the midst of its’ Second World War, it became obvious that one thing that had yet to be entirely solved, racial discrimination. In the novel, If He Hollers Let Him Go, Chester Himes creates a wide variety of characters that all have a different, but concrete, view point on race and racial discrimination. The novel is about Bob Jones, a black man, who moves to California during World War II because he is tired of the extensive racial discrimination in Ohio. Bob begins to work at Atlas shipyard, one of the many shipyards that are responsible for producing ships, which was crucial during the time of war. Bob eventually becomes a leaderman in the†¦show more content†¦Mrs. Harrison believes that black people have to earn the white people’s respect, trust, freedoms and equality. Mrs. Harrison says to Bob, â€Å"You mustn’t think in terms of trying to get even with them, you must accept whatever they do for you and try to prove yourself worthy to be entrusted with more† (52). She states that if black people work hard enough, the white people will reward them. She also wants the black community to wait for the white people to â€Å"give† them something better, to accept what the white people â€Å"do for them.† She compares the idea of black and white people equality to communism. She tells Bob that he needs to make himself worthy of respect. â€Å"You know yourself, Bob, a lot of our people are just not worthy, they just don’t deserve anymore than they’re getting† (52). These comments illustrate how class has a great influence on Mrs. Harrison’s point of view on race. Without having to work and being rich, she is ignorant of the racial discrimination that a day to day skilled worker of Bob’s color has to go through. Like her daughter Alice, Mrs. Harrison has been given special treatment b y the white people for her lighter skin, and her social and economic class. Alice is a very light skinned, black woman who could pass off as white without any makeup. She works as a supervisor of case work in city welfare. She came from the one of the richest Negro families on the West Coast. She is, in Bob’s mind,Show MoreRelatedEssay on If He Hollers Let Him Go2781 Words   |  12 Pagesï » ¿ Chester Himes’s If He Hollers Let Him Go provides a graphic window into the world of racism where his protagonist, Bob Jones, outlines personal dreams that serve as a framework to recreate the reality of the overwhelming prejudice prevalent in the 1940s. The novel unfolds over a course of four to five days, where each day begins with a nightmare encountering various forms of racism. Throughout each dream, Jones elicits scenes of violence, with each one escalating in visual description and immoralRead MoreAnalysis Of Chester Himess If He Hollers Let Him Go1268 Words   |  6 PagesIn Chester Himes’, If He Hollers Let Him Go the racial tension be tween blacks and whites was perfectly portrayed by protagonist Bob Jones and white counterpart, Madge. The relationship between the two was a great example of the advantage that was taken of African Americans in the United States before the Civil Rights Movement. Being friends with someone opposite of your race was frowned upon. With that in mind, for a white woman and a black man to be in a relationship was completely unacceptableRead MoreAnalysis Of Chester Himes s If He Hollers Let Him Go 965 Words   |  4 PagesIf He Hollers Let Him Go, a contemporary American novel published by Chester Himes in 1945, addresses multiple themes of racism and injustice during the World War II era throughout its pages, using the experience of a single black shipyard worker named Robert Jones. Jones awakes every morning in the wake of disturbing nightmares that center on his fears of the war, of racism, and of the thought that his own blackness might forever be the paramount obstacle in his searc h for total freedom. The protagonistRead MoreSummary Of An American Folk Tale By Americo Paredes1424 Words   |  6 Pagesthat of Chester Himes If He Hollers Let Him Go. Both stories deal with the issues of violence and racism, although in very different ways. Based on both works, I believe that Bob Jones’ figure leaves a more lasting and long-term consequence of racism. Chester Himes’ novel about Bob Jones has somewhat of an autobiographical touch to it. It is more persuasive in the way that, he and Bob have a lot in common. Even though Paredes’ character focuses on a real character he is made into a fictional, whereasRead MoreDouble Consciousness and Its Present State820 Words   |  3 Pagesmust be said then, that the culturally and linguistically diverse California classrooms must integrate texts that examine the psychological state of double identity. Turning to Luis Valdez’ play â€Å"Zoot Suit†, Chester Himes’s protest novel If He Hollers Let Him Go, and Al Young’s prose poem â€Å"Coastal Nights and Inland Afternoons†, we encounter literature and characters with double identities that assist in navigating marginalized adolescents with their own struggles in understanding their multiculturalRead MoreAmst Final Essaay1183 Words   |  5 Pageshave made towards fixing the issue. The three main resources that I found really helpful for ways that the authors got their point across to the readers and or viewers about racial struggle is Birth of a Nation, Black is†¦ Black Ain’t and If He Hollers Let Him Go. In D.W. Griffith’s film, The Birth of a Nation we see how two different families the Stoneman’s who are from the North and the Cameron’s who are from the South who are close friends in the beginning are quickly torn apart because of differingRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem The Lil Divas 1024 Words   |  5 Pagesschool, Mark Gallows, there s not much to say about him just that he is Caption of the Football team and every girl wants to date him for his perfect jawline, amazing blue eyes and his spiked up blonde hair. Also, he’s the twin of Amber. Grayson, Pandora and Scarlett the trio. Three different personality which makes them have the perfect friendship. Grayson Skie the only guy in the group. He might not look like he is into sports but actually he s in the football team. He’s nerdy, funny, sweet,Read MoreHegemonic Masculinity : Characters And Plot Of The Popular Sitcom Two And A Half Men1720 Words   |  7 Pagesis strongly evident in the clip â€Å"Charlie gives Alan some lessons.† Two and a half men is a popular sitcom centered around the lives of two brothers Charlie, Alan, and Alan’s son, Jake. Ever since Alan got a divorce from his wife and lost his house, he is financially unstable and dependent on his brother Charlie for a place to stay. Charlie plays the dominant masculine figure and hyper masculine role and enjoys the bachelor lifestyle around attractive women, and is financially and socially stableRead MoreThe Story Of Sara 1620 Words   |  7 Pagesbeneath it to the surface. He kneels down at her side, feeling for signs of life while taking in Sara’s grim appearance: no emotion registers on his brutish face when feeling her heartbeats, fading fast. â€Å"Who are you?† a Kingsman larger than him, appears in the doorway. He had heard the sounds and return to investigate. â€Å"Where’s the boy?† the man questions in a commanding tone, rising to a stand, stepping over Sara. â€Å"Where’s Marcus? Tell me, what your lieutenant has done with him?† The Kingsman reachesRead MoreThe Chemistry Lesson Of Bunsen Burners Essay833 Words   |  4 Pageswho’s fuckin around, wearing a flammable jacket, and have him get too close to said Bunsen burner and POOF– he ignites. The fast acting teacher grabbed the easily lifted kid and stuck the top half of his hopefully soon to develop body, into the large lab table’s sink in the front of the class. SSSSSS†¦Distinguished. ~ Goldstein’s Pipe: Mister Goldstein was kind of Mister Holler-ish (If you read that chappet, you’ll get the reference.) He was 1970 ‘cool’ with the air of a college professor with

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis Of `` The Yellow Wallpaper `` By Charlotte...

Women have been devalued by men for as long as people can remember. In the past, when men were off at war, women had to work jobs and keep business functioning routinely. Filling in the gaps the men left to go off to combat was no trouble for women, but as soon as the men returned, the women had to return to the kitchen. Women are the inferior option, the substitute if the male species were to be wiped out. Women aren’t acknowledged for all they are, nor are they given the same opportunities as men. In the story, â€Å"What if Shakespeare had a sister†, Virginia Woolf discusses how incompetently women were regarded in society. Women were dispossessed of all their rights, being nothing more than a housewife, being restricted of their potential. In, â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, is a narrative of a woman being trapped and living in a patriarchal world. In the sonnet â€Å"Quincenanera† Judith Ortiz Cofer, discusses a girl growing i nto a woman who knows she will be treated miserably by society. As portrayed in all these stories, a theme of women being deprived of their rights. Gilman and Cofer both defend Woolf’s assertions about the contradiction of women’s depiction compared to real life because of the expectations of reproductive work, devaluation, repercussions of women being denied of their true freedom, and sexism. The predictions of women were to do reproductive work and nothing more. Reproductive work means all the labor completed at home to sustainShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1269 Words   |  6 Pages15 February 2017 Analysis of â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† Life during the 1800s for a woman was rather distressing. Society had essentially designated them the role of being a housekeeper and bearing children. They had little to no voice on how they lived their daily lives. Men decided everything for them. To clash with society s conventional views is a challenging thing to do; however, Charlotte Perkins Gilman does an excellent job fighting that battle by writing â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper,† one of the mostRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of The Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1138 Words   |  5 PagesLiterary Analysis of Symbolism in The Yellow Wallpaper During the late 1800’s, life for women was much different than it is today. Home and family were expected to be their priorities rather than education or the pursuit of a career in the professional world. Married women were not allowed to own property, keep the wages they earned or sign contracts. No woman could vote either. In short, women in the 1800’s were essentially second class citizens. In The Yellow Wallpaper, Charlotte Perkins GilmanRead More A Critical Analysis of The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman1237 Words   |  5 Pages A Critical Analysis of The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman The Yellow Wallpaper written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman is a riveting story of a dejected woman locked away as if she were insane. Her passion is to write and by doing so we are able to follow her on a journey in which she is victimized by those closest to her. The significance of the story is tremendous as it delves into the underlying issues of a womans place and feminism in the 19th centuryRead MoreA Critical Analysis Of The Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1051 Words   |  5 PagesEnglish 102 Esposito, Carmine. A Critical Analysis of The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman Charlotte Perkins Gilman was a famous social worker and a leading author of women’s issues. Charlotte Perkins Gilman s relating to views of women s rights and her demands for economic and social reform of gender inequities are very famous for the foundations of American society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In critics Gilman ignored by people of color in the United StatesRead MoreAnalysis Of Charlotte Perkins Gilman s The Yellow Wallpaper 1047 Words   |  5 PagesJacob Niemann PY.260.115.05: Humanities Core I 11/22/15 Niemann I What lies beneath â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† Written in 1892, Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† is a short story that explores the mind of a woman who is driven to insanity by her surrounding environment. This woman, who narrates her experiences in a journal, begins by marveling at the grandeur of the estate her husband has taken for their summer vacation. Her feeling that there is â€Å"something queer† (307) about the situationRead MoreAnalysis Of The Yellow Wallpaper, By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1058 Words   |  5 Pagesthis case, how to deliver a point. Charlotte Perkins Gilman expresses her experiences and feelings with her writing in order to create a stronger case and bring change for women. Gilman fought the time’s misogynistic culture with many works such as her newspaper, The Forerunner, The Yellow Wallpaper, Women and Economics, as well as several others essays or short stories. In these stories, Gilman draws from her experiences to fight 19th century sexist culture. Charlotte Gilman’s experiences greatly influencedRead MoreAnalysis Of The Story The Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman913 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, the narrator has severe depression, at the very least, and knows that she can get better if she is given the right treatment. While trying to get better, she can’t help but be fixated on the yellow wallpaper in her room. The yellow wallpaper in this story is a representation of the narrator’s relationship with her disease. The exterior portion of the wallpaper is a portrayal of the narrator’s disease. At night, it â€Å"becomes bars† (Gilman 15). TheRead MoreCritical Analysis Of The Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1258 Words   |  6 Pages Critical Essay #1 Yellow Wall Paper This gothic horror tale of nineteenth century fiction, written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman in 1892; during a time that women writers were starting to come out and write about key issues in their treatment. She craftily sets up or spins the story with a setting of isolation and a character who feels trapped, by a husband who chooses not to know her; yet does not listen to her and keeps her trapped on an island, all in her best interest. The tone is filled withRead MoreAnalysis Of Charlotte Perkins Gilman s The Yellow Wallpaper 839 Words   |  4 PagesShaquan Chavis 17 November, 2015 English 110 Professor. Cia Kessler Essay #4: Infantilization inside of the â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† The way woman were treated in the late 1800’s is totally different than today. At that time woman and men were not equal to each other. Women were confined to particular roles. The men usually played the dominant role which led women to just listen and follow their spouse. During that time woman were at the bottom of the social class. The regular household consistedRead MoreAnalysis Of The Chrysanthemums And The Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1842 Words   |  8 Pagesthat a dynamic character will be a protagonist in the story. Two great literary works, â€Å" The Chrysanthemums† written by John Steinbeck and â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman both contain a dynamic character. Elisa Allen, a typical farmer in â€Å" The Chrysanthemums† and the narrator, who suffers from depression in â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† both experience obstacles that shift their mind set and idea of self worth in society. Elisa Al len and the narrator are both dynamic characters

Childhood Dreams Essay Example For Students

Childhood Dreams Essay For my independent study topic I researched dreams. There are many differentapproaches philosophers have taken to explain dreams and what they mean. I willgo through a couple of them. Many of you may be asking yourself why do Idream?, there are several answers to that question. The first in thephysiological set. We dream in order to exercise our brains. When youreawake, messages are constantly speeding among all your billions of brain cellsto keep you moving and thinking and digesting an so on. So the idea is that whenyoure asleep, dreams exercise the pathways between brains cells. Acouple of ideas that might help this make sense are; the first couple of yearsof your life are the most intense for learning which is also when you have thegreatest amount of REM sleepwhich means your dreaming a lot. Another thing isyour brain waves during REM sleep look about the same as your brain waves whileyour awake. During other parts of sleep, the brain waves look very different (alot slower) There is also a psychological set of ideas about why we dream. Sincepsychology has to do with your thoughts and emotions it has been said dreams areactually about immediate concerns in our lives. In the bible and within a lot ofcultures dreams are thought to be prophetic, which means they can predict thefuture. Sigmund Freud a famous philosopher gave us a lot of ideas on how ourminds work and was very interested in interpreting dreams. He thought dreamscontained symbols hidden deep within our minds and memories.